Upadesh (teaching) to Students in Vedic Period ( 4-5 thousand years ago)
When considering the relation between teachers and students, there seemed more harmonious relation between students and teachers in the vedic period. The education system was different to the present time. A child once was12 years old was sent to Gurukula (school), away from the family. The student stayed there in natural environment as member of big family of Gurukula, obtaining full education in many subjects including scripters and spirituality. All this happens under great guidance of the Gurus (teachers).
(Below are Veda Mantras, Injunction and Instruction of Vedas in Sanskrit with translation in English).
The following is precious and noble advise to students.
Important instructions are given from Guru to the Vedic student at end of the study at Gurukula. It is particularly for those students called prajapatya brahmacharin who return home to their family. (from: Taitariya Upanishad), Shiksha Valli, Anuvak-11)
Vedam anuchyacharyo antevasinam anushasti .
Satyam vada. Dharmam chara. Swadhyan ma pramadah. Acharyaaya priyam dhanmaahrutya prajaatantum maa vyavatchhetsihi. Satyaann pramaditavyam. Dharmaanna pramaditavyam. Kushaanna pramaditvyam. Bhootyai na pramaditavyam. Svyaadhyaay pravachanaabhyam na pramadoitavyam. Deva pitrukaaryaabhyaam
Having imparted the wisdom the teacher instructs the disciple:-
Speak out the truth. Practice righteousness. Do not neglect your self-study and teaching. Having brought to the teacher the wealth that is pleasing (to him), do not cut off the line of progeny. Let there be no neglect of Truth. Let there be no neglect of righteousness. Let there be no neglect of protecting yourself (kuwjlj- including health of body and mind). Let there be no neglect of prosperity. Let there be no neglect of duties to gods and ancestors. Treat mother, father, teacher and guest as equal to gods.
Yaanyavadyani karmaani. Taani sevitavyaani. No itaraani. Yaanyasmakam sucharitaani. Taani tvayopaasyaani. No itaraani. 2.
Ye ke chaasmachheyaa gavm so braahmanaha. Tesham tvayaasanena prashvasitavyam. Shraddhayaa deyam. Ashraddhyaa n
Practice deeds that are only blameless and adopt good practices that there are among us (not others that are improper).
Those *brahmins(respectable) who are superior to us, should be comforted by you by offering a seat without prejudice. You are required to accept only essence of the truth. A gift is to be offered with full faith. It should never be offered without full faith. Offer gift according to your (financial) capacity. Gift should be offered with modesty. Gifts should be offered with awe. Gifts should be offered with sympathy.
Atha yadi te karmavichikitsaa vaa syaat . Ye tatra braahmanaahaa. Sammarshinah. Yuktaa aayuktaah . Alookshaa dharmakaamaah syuh.
Yathaa te tatra varteran. Tatha tatra vartethaah. 4.
Athaabhyaakhaateshu. Ye tatra braahmanaah sammarshinah . Yuktaa aayuktaah. Aalukshaa dharmakaammaah suhu. Yathaa te teshu vartethaaha 5
Then, if there is any doubt in you regarding any deed or conduct then you should behave on such occasions as the Brahmins do, who are able deliberators, who are balanced, who need no direction from others, who are not harsh, and who love righteousness .
This is the injunction. This is the instruction. This is the secret wisdom of the Vedas. This is the behest. Thus, one should meditate. Thus, indeed one should meditate.
*Note : Brahmins=not as mere race, but quality or nature by Brahmin.
It is worth noting that path of spirituality may have various obstacles, that may sway us from our spiritual goals.
In the path of Bhakti, superstitious ideas around Bhoot(ghost), Bhuvas, Dori and Dhagas; are stumbling blocks to attaining the pure goal. This may arise from blind faith (Andha Shraddha), illusionary knowledge, and undesirable emotions pertaining to God, Goddess, gurus, avatars, and temples. For example, one’s religious expression may be covered with vague and cloudy state of mind such as “Entering of evil spirit (Bhoot- Daakan), or ancestors in one’s body ! ..and so on.
Yoga and Tantra
The desire to acquire supernatural power and miracles while practicing Yoga or Tantra could deviate us from our pure destination which is “SELF” or “ABSOLUTE”.
One must always be careful of false pride and hypocrisy (Dambh) that may arise from doing mere rituals (Karma Kanda) and sacrifices Yagna or Puja –anusthan. Example :-“I did so much Pujas, hence I am superior than others’.
(1) Beware of ego (Ahankar) and an attitude of mere logic and argumentation (Kutark) in the path of knowledge (Gyan). Besides, one who merely gathers information of knowledge from great scriptures and sages to impress others as an armchair philosopher and does not put into practice is comparable to an animal carrying heavy loads of books of knowledge on his back.
(2) Besides the above familiar ways there are some modern thinkers and philosophers such as J. Krishnamurty and others who promulgate to have no path, no concept, no religious, dogmas and no authority of scriptures/shastras as well as gurus for awareness of one’s own “True State of Being”. According to them all these concepts are external to oneself, so they are binding factors. If these teaching are not understood thoroughly, there is the likelihood of having immense difficulties in managing practical affairs of life. Together, personal ego may increase.
(3) Here, it is appropriate to mention the last preaching (Upadesh) of the great Buddha before he left his body. These are the golden words addressed to his beloved disciple Ananda, who was clouded by sorrow for his own spiritual future. “O, Ananda, in the path of spirituality there are well recognized, famous and authorized scriptures. If you think “I” (Ananda) should follow as so because number of great persons also followed them, then you are making a mistake. Saying that there is a great Mahatma who is highly learned, influential preacher and renowned religious person, he has thousands of followers so “I should accept his ideology”. With that, you are far away from pure knowledge. I (Buddha) am your Guru and you are my disciple. Due to this relationship, if you wish to follow me as it is what I preach, then you are deceiving your self. O, Ananda, for unbounded Truth solve out at your own”.
Even these ‘Golden Words’ of Buddha should be applied after analyzing and thoroughly examining it. Of course there is great truth in it, but the possibility still exists that a person having a clouded and unclear mind may accept it literally and consequently fall on the negative side of it. Those short sighted thinkers always keep themselves away from some noble thoughts of scriptures and also from great thinkers of the world of past and present.
Nonetheless, one should not be discouraged, but begin their spiritual journey with enthusiasm. One may choose any path, or many paths, or even the so called “no path”; one should be aware of the above cautions.
(The following article is about the important philosophical vision
(Darshan of Advaita. ) …a collection
(Note:- for those who are not familiar with the word Advaitathat is ‘Non dual’, our speech or intellect can not express completely as it is. Though, the Truth is the ultimate goal of all human beings and religions, sages try to say or express this with many names: Aatmaa, Brahman, Aum, Moksha, Ishwara, Nirvana, Buddhahood, Shunya, Allah, God, and so on for our worldly convenience.)
Advaita is not an explanation, it is an experience. It cannot be restricted within any blueprint no matter how comprehensive. It is a fluent immediacy of understanding for which words are inadequate.
We can do no better than quote extensively from ‘Dialogues With The Guru’ complied by R. K. Aiyar in conversation with His Holiness Sri Chandrasekhara Bharati Swaminah(1912 to 1954), Shankaracharyaof Shrigeri Math, South India
Mr. R.: I shall be very grateful if your Holiness will be pleased to initiate me into the Advaita Vedanta yourself.
H.H.: I shall certainly be very glad to do so, if I can do it. But it is quite beyond my competence.
Mr. R.: I am sure Your Holiness is not serious. If Your Holiness professes incompetence to teach Advaita, I do not see how anybody else in the world can claim to teach it.
H.H.: What can we do? It is the nature of the subject. The Upanishad itself proclaims, ‘He who claims to know, knows not’. The Advaita is not something to be learnt; therefore it cannot be a thing to be taught. It is essentially something to be realized by oneself. I cannot therefore undertake to teach you. If, however, in the course of your Vedantic studies, you want any passage to be explained either in a text or in a commentary, I shall certainly try my best to explain it. I can thus help you only to understand the significance of words or of sentences which are composed of words, or ideas which are conveyed by sentences. But it is impossible to convey to you a correct idea of what Advaita is, for it is neither a matter of words nor is it a mental concept. It is, on the other hand, pure experience which transcends all these. Suppose I do not know what sweetness is. Can you describe sweetness in words sufficiently expressive to convey an idea of sweetness to me?
Mr. R.: That is certainly impossible.
H.H.: Sweetness can be known only when I put some sweet thing on my tongue. It is impossible to be explained in words or to be learnt from another person. It has to be realized in direct experience. If a thing that is so familiar to us as sweetness transcends all expression, what if how much more transcendental will be the truth of Advaita, which is the supreme sweeten.
What Advaita presents to us is not a way to accumulate knowledge so as to control the world around us, nor a certificate of self aggrandizement, nor does it provide a diploma to teach others. The essential experience of Advaita means realizing that there are no ‘others’ to teach. What it does offer is wisdom and a way to be spiritually free.
( a collection)
Where there is duality, there you understand another, you think of and think the other; but by what do you understand the under-stander or think the thinker? For you cannot see the seer, you cannot understand the under-stander, and know the knower.
— Brhadaranyaka Upanisad III.4.2
Although the Self/Atma is real, as it comprises everything, it does not give room for questions involving duality about its reality or unreality. Therefore it is said to be different from the real and unreal. —– Shri Raman Maharsi.
An Upanishadic event
Badhva, an Upanishadic sage/guru, is being questioned about the nature of the Absolute by his disciple, Bashkali.
The guru sits motionless and silent.
“Teach me Sir”, prayed the disciple.
The teacher continued to be silent.
When addressed a second and third time he (the teacher) said, “I am teaching, but you do not follow. Self (Aatmaa) is silence”(upshanta FpjwjNjtj)
(The section given above is from an Upanishad, but lost due to some historical reason, and also partially found in Brahma Sutra/Shanker – Bhasya 3/2/17 )
Similar events of “silence as knowledge” have occurred between Daxinamurty and Sanatkumars, and between Lord Buddha and one of his disciples.
Silence is ever-speaking. It is a perennial flow of language. It is interrupted by speaking.
For the Reality which is not expressible as it is, the Vedas express it with the great dictum
“Neti..Neti.”(njeitj njeitj) – Not this ! ..Not this !
I am neither ‘that’ nor ‘this’,
Nor am I merely the meaning content of Sat;
I am but Sat Cit Amrut (immortal bliss)—
Having attained this transparency
And becoming well-stabilized in it,
With no preference for the real or the unreal,
I should gently, gently merge in the SAT AUM !
There is a finer and deeper explanation in the Mandukya Upanishadof our final goal. The following mantra from the Mandukya Upanishad (chapter of Vedas) is a very important and highly intuitive statement in the above context. I offer two translations expressing the Reality.
Na Antah Pragyam Na Bahihi Pragyam Na Ubhayatah Pragyam Na Pragyaanaghanam Na Pragyam Na Apragyam// Adrashyamavyavahaartam Agraahyam Alaxanam Achintyam
Avyapadeshyam//. Ekaatma Pratyayasaaram Prapanchopashamam Shaantam Shivam Adaitam///. Chaturtham Manyante Sa Atmaa Sa Vigyeya : Mandukya Upanishad–(7)
(1) As not inwardly conscious, not outwardly conscious, as not filled with a knowing content, not conscious, not unconscious, unseen, non-predictable, ungraspable, bereft of quality, unthinkable, indeterminate, as the substance of the certitude of the unitive Self, as the calmer of manifested, tranquil, numinous, non-dual (ad]vjEtjN), is the forth limb considered to be. He is the Self; that is to be recognized.
—————- ——————- ——————- —————–
(2) They consider the Fourth to be that which a not conscious of the internal world, nor conscious of the external world, nor conscious of both the worlds, nor a mass of consciousness, nor conscious, nor unconscious; which is unseen, beyond empirical dealings, beyond the grasp (of the organs of action), un-inferable, unthinkable, indescribable; whose valid proof consist in the single certitude in the Self; in which all phenomena cease; and which is unchanging, auspicious, and non-dual. That is the Self, and Thatis to be known.
The great Seers/Rushis of Vedas and all others who have realised the ‘all encompassing THAT’ which is called by many denominations Aatmaa/Brahman/Aum-Advait (SELF/ non-dual / unconditional Truth , silence-awareness, Nirvana ). The Vedas, the original scripture of Hindus, express THAT as ‘Neti-Neti’(not this – not this) as well Anirvachaniya in the Sanskritlanguage.
Anirvachaniya means:- ineffable, inexplicable, inexpressible, and indeterminable. ‘THAT’ has no name but when the great seers, for our benefit, try to express through the world of time, space, and relativity have to pass through law of object/subject relativity. There a bi-polarity occurs from a horizontal or worldly point of view. Consequently though, the Absolute has no name, as well as no form or face, at same time having many names even like Lord, God, Ishwar, Allah, etc. (The Supreme Lord according to the Vedas is creator, sustainer, and dissolver/destructor). THAT has no birth, but can incarnate as God’s avatars like Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva, Lord Rama, Krisna, and so on. It is interesting to know that in Sanskrit grammar, all of these gods’ names coming under scriptural authority have abstract meaning; and if all these are reduced to their most precise and finest point or to ultimate final essence, result as “One without second” – Advait – Self/Aatma/Brahman that is: Anirvachaniya.
This article explains vedic mantras on Param Satya as follows –
This information elaborates on understanding of Satya/the Truth together with important Hindu katha so called “Satya Narayan Kathaa”. Satya Narayan Katha is occasionally performed by Hindus. It is good for vedic cultural and spiritual (Vaarso/Olakhan) recognition. Besides, it is necessary to know the inner truth said in Vedas.
(Many precise words of Sanskrit or derived from Sanskrit that are appropriate and better understood in original term rather than just translated in english. Therefore, here one may find words with Sanskrit pronunciation with english script within the – article of english version.# It is also advisable to read “Important Note” at the end of these mantras.)
There are 25 mantras as follows on Satya/Absolute Reality from Vedas. But I have mentioned only 1,2,3,6 & 9th mantras transcripted in English from Sanskrit, and rest are just english translations.
Vedic Mantras On Satya/Parmaatma. Vedic Satya Narayan Bhagwan (Katha…!)
Aum Satyam Param Dhimahi.
(This Gayatri Mantra is in the beginning of Sri. Bhagwatam by Maharshi Vyas.
Meaning:- Now we meditate on the Truth-supreme that is the form (Swarup) of Parmaatma.
Aum Satyam. -(The Truth)
“Satyam is Parmatma, Iswar and Shri Satya-Narayan-Bhagwan”
( The following Mantra of Upanishad is an important pillar of this Vedic instruction here.)
Narayan is Eternal. Narayan is Brahmaa. Narayan is Shiva. Narayan is Indra. Narayan is Swarga/heaven, earth, time, (all) directions- up high, down, inner and outer side, whatever is in past and future. Narayan is all these. The undivided, far from nescience (agyan), eternal pure, inexplicable, divine, one and only, non-dual Narayan. This knowledge/ education (Upadesha) is of Veda. One who realize, merge in (becomes non dual) Vishnu, Vishnu—(all pervasive)
Oh Soumya (disciple)! Verily, non other than SAT – the perennial existence – the Truth alone existed in the beginning, and nothing but the Truth. He wished truthfully(Satya Sankalp)– to be many fold. And He created this entire creation.
(2) Tadaatmaanam Svayamkuruita. Tasmaat Tat sukruta-muchyata Iti.
Now, having been concealed, He projected himself (as many). Therefore, is preciously called “very well created” in Sanskrit (sukrut), in Vedas .
Sukrut:- Bhagwat Geeta says, “ To do Karma/work skillfully, is YOGA”. This Sloka is equivalent to above Veda Manta that states, -Ishwer created/projected this world so skillfully/preciously that cannot be explain fully. Here, message is “we must try to do all our works skillfully and enthusiastically”. In beginning this principle was set, so it applies here as well for good result.
(3) So Kaamayat- Bahoo syaam Prajaayeyeti Sa Tapo Tapyata, Sa Tapastaptvaa Idam Sarva Srujat. Yadidam Kincha. Tat Srushtvaa Tadevaanupraavishat.
As He (The SAT) wished, “I become many and project myself”, leading to this entire creation. He did austerity (tapas). Than entered and penetrated in the whole creation through and through.
(Note:– We see a fundamental principle, in the beginning the Supreme creator has established that only through tapas/hard work the expected result can be achieved, so here in this world as well. This divine law still applies even now.)
The very Lord (SAT), one without second became self-emerged (Swayambhu), and pervaded as all forms in all directions. (some-what like “I” emerge as many… without outside material in dream state !) Verily, He is the one who resided (as per Daivik Vidhan) in divine (Daivik) womb as well took divine birth or emerged through the womb (Hiranya Garbha) in the beginning, and would always emerge in future. He projected himself as every Lokas and resided directly in every entity facing himself towards all/ Sarwatomukhah. Therefore He exists even here, and right now in present.
This very Truth called Sat is nothing but the Self/Atma said in Vedas, and Atma is taint-less, pure, in the form of righteousness and satya sankalp- having divine wish of the Truth-absolute. It is worth knowing. One should find out with great zeal.
(Taintless- like the purity of Space/Akash cannot be dirty or destroy in the world.)
(6) Ekam Sat Vipraa Bahudhaa Vadanti .
The Truth (SAT) that called Brahman is one and only. The realized souls and knowledgeable seers express That in many ways.
Note:- According to scriptures, though seers realize the Absolute Truth (Param Satya) is unable to express as That is beyond measure. Therefore there are conceptual variation while seers try to explain in this relative world.
The Satyadeve’s vow(vrata-pratigna) is the truth, ever alert in the truth and exists in the form of the truth during past, present and future. He, the Supreme, is source (Yony) of the worldly truth, ever present in truth and is the truth of the truth that verified and recognized in this transactional world. The Satyadeve has two eyes. (1) One is called –Hrut- means unshakable and non perishable laws of nature that sustain and make move the whole creation and (2) the second is satya the Truth. ….Oh ! Satyaatmaa, Hai Prabhu ! I come to surrender myself, please protect me.
Only with the help of the Truth(SAT) air move in all direction and Sun shines in the sky. Upon “that” speech gains honor and support. Due to That each and every thing is sustained. Therefore knowledgeable person considers the Truth (SAT) as Supreme.
(9) “Satyam Hi Eva Brahma.” not Brahmaa)
(Note:-This is very important Brahma Vaakya. Vedantis honor this.). Meaning:
Truth is verily the Brahman. The Brahman is (1)The Truth/- Satya (2) Knowledge / Gyan and (3) Infinite (ananta). As said in Vedas.
Victory is identified to the truth(SAT) , and not to untruth. Upon the truth, path of Devayan is extended. Rushis gains their sadgati, having been fully contented (aaptakama) while walking on this path. In such a way they overcome ocean of death and attain paramadham. In other words they become immortal. The Truth means final goal which is one and only base and support of all.
(Note: It is appropriate to keep in mind that, even to justify one’s own statement of untruth, one has to propagate and emphasize his lies as ‘ yes, this is true’; and only then he becomes able to convince some one. In other words, untruth has to put on an artificial face of the truth to secure its ground. But this will stay for some times only. At the end, only the truth gains victory. It is also true that soliciting to gain sadgati of a human being, with the means of lies or unreal, never ever works. )
To a Gyani, a knower of the Self, Atma is realized having Truth (satya) and austerity (Tapa). The supreme knowledge is acquired through meditating on Brahman. The Self that is Brahman dwells in our hearts as light/knowledge (atma jyoti) in us. The Seers/rushis visualize the Self-divine as pure and serene.
There is no best Dharma besides the Truth(SAT), and no sin above untruth. Truth is in the form of Vedas and essence of all religion that is law of Dharma. Therefore the Truth never eliminates.
Truth(SATYA) is Brahman the God Supreme. He creates all these expansively. He sustains and protects all lokas (worlds). Human reaches in the haven or gain sadgati(liberation)upon practicing the Truth, which is the form of God.
Speak truth (SATYA)but with sweet expression and peaceful words. Speak truth but not harshly. And do not say untruth also that people like to here for mere enjoyment. This is Sanatan Drarma the eternal law.
If we weigh the truth/Sat on the scale, the truth exceed thousands Ashwa megha Yagna, (form of sacrifice).
Consider the truth(SAT) as truth that give happiness, peace and pure benefit -kalyan to all, and defined as untruth which is opposite to that.
(Note: to say truth is not enough. Sad- bhavna, affection, good thoughts and good deeds are also considered as path of truth that give sadgati.)
Where there is no attendance of any matured and aged person (and wise) the meeting is not considered as real meeting. The aged person who does not express his views according to the law of Dharma is not eligible as honorable person. There is no truth(SAT) where there is intention of fraud and cheating, and that is not Dharma.
(1)Cows (2)Braahmana the priest, (3) Veda,(4) Sati Stree -women, (5) Satyavadi Loko-truth full people, (6)Lobh Rahit Manushyo-people with no greed, and (7)Daanvir – generous donors. These seven are the strong pillar and sustainers of this sansar- earth.
Earth is based on the Truth(SAT). Sun shines and air moves due to the same; * so every thing is established in That. Example:- upon the stable cinema white-screen film of innumerable events is passing on .
(Note: Here truth means firm, perennial and law of nature called “hrut principle” in Vedas. Without that the entire creation one cannot stand on or exist even for a fraction of a second.)
The Truth(SAT) is ladder of Heaven. By that one gains Brahman and emancipation Moksha. Every thing is sustained by the Truth.
Knower of Dharma defines that, the Truth(SAT) and simplicity are paramount Dharma. Even though it is difficult to understand shashwat sanatan dharma, it is but established in the Truth .
(22) Aum Tat Sat – Verily the Sat is Aum. The same is Tat called Atma or Parmatma who is our final destination expressed in Vedas and Upanishadas. In essence, (1) Sat, (2) final goal Tat and (3) Pranavarth Aum are one and the same. They are not different.
(So the Truth is Dharma, and is mahadev or Ishwara (God) who governs the whole creation. The same is the absolute truth /satya which is ever in Self, the source of entire creation and final destination of all. (Shivashch Naaraayanah)-Upanishad.
He is our refuge – ashraya/ayan- sthan; therefore is called shree Bhagwan Satya Narayan. He pervades and resides in and through every atom/anu so is called Shree Vishnu. Thus Satya/Truth is verily Shreeman Narayan.)
Oh! Prabhu, your glory is beyond our imagination. We all come to surrender with our heart. Please favor us, grant us kripa, protect us from all evils and give whatever good and beneficial –kalyankari for us. Jai ho to you, jai ho to you (salutations).
Oh ! Agni dev, Oh! Dip devta,– lord of light Oh! Vratapati, I will walk on the path of truth(SAT). May I be able to practice on it . May my wish and the vrat-vow succeed and be fulfilled. May I abandon untruth, and accept and follow the truth.
May I walk on the path of immortal Truth(SAT), leaving behind mortal untruth.
(25) Aum Asatomaa Sat Gamaya. Tamaso Maa Jyotir Gamaya. Mrutyormaa Amrutam Gamaya.
Aum Shantihi Shantihi Shantihi.
Hai Prabhu ! lead me towards the Truth(SAT) from untruth. Take me from darkness of ignorance to the light of Knowledge, and from mortal life to immortality. Aum Shantih Shantih Shantih.
Narayan is the Supreme Reality designated as Brahman. Narayan is the highest (SELF).
Narayan is the supreme Light (described in the Upanishadas). Narayan is the most excellent meditator and meditation.
THAT (Narayana) is Brahmaa, THAT is Shiva, THAT is Hari, THAT is Indra, THAT is Akshara, THAT is Param, THAT is Swarat. (From Narayan Sukta.)
Aum Shree Satya Narayanaya Namah
Note:- Here “Sat”, “Satya” is verily the AUM, and same called “Sat Chit Anand” Brahman/Atma= Parmatma all pervading. There is no difference.
# ————————————————————————————————– Important Note:– Among Hindus Sri Satya Narayan Katha is used to perform and read with full shradha. There our priest explains the events from our Puranic scripture. We listen to the Katha (narrative) of a Brahmin, a King, a Businessman and (woodcutter) Lakadhara with full faith and do puja-prarthana of Sri Bhagwan Satya Narayana. To perform this traditional KATHA-PUJA is necessary at our home. Yes, it is fruitful and keeps alive our Sanskruti/culture for our benefit.
During this occasion the said Katha and Sri Vishnu Sahastranam are also being read. You would have noticed that there is not much emphasis about Satya which is the form of Bhagwan Satya Narayan. In fact, this is a very important factor that explained in Vedas and Upanishadas. This is the root of all knowledge and certainly of Hinduism. The above selected Mantas are in the context of the perennial Truth. These had been visualized by great seers/rushis of the said pavitra scriptures from Vedas, Upanishads and Srimad Bhagwat.
Note: Depending on the time allocated for Katha and Puja, following is optional:
The above 25 Mantras may be recited after initial puja and just before the actual Katha starts. It would not only be beneficial to us spiritually, but also our quality of life in every respect would be improved upon trying to walk on the path of universal Truth, while dealing with this transactional world/ (vyavahaaric jagat). Satya Narayan Bhagwan would protect us.
It is true that prior to happening of any events (katha prasang) there is always pre-existed principle of eternal existence /Sat (like varieties of ornaments are originated or based on existence of gold, or pottery on existence of clay). Therefore it is also true with Katha of scriptures that enlightens our heart and intellect with devotion /Bhakti or knowledge is based on the original Truth. In view of knowledge and science, we find the same perennial Truth or basic reality that projects or emerges as all these things and events. All these are projected only upon the waft and woof or texture of time, space and relativity. This is among the first principles of creation. So both (1) basic principle the Satyam and (2) existence of events of past presents and future are sustained by the SAT – have its value and importance in Satya Narayan Katha.
Giving an example, event of falling an apple from a tree in that particular time/space, became cause to find out a formless and everlasting principle of “law of gravity” which is still valid. Off course, both have their own true value.
The author has revealed above Mantras of Vedas that are eternal, pure and beneficial to all. 25 Mantras given here may be read only as translation or together with Sansktit Mantras with faith.
In addition, a grief of Bhagwan Vyasaji in Mahabharat says:-
I raise my hands repeatedly, proclaim loudly and loudly, “By the means of Dharma only, Artha and Kaam (true meaning and work) are achievable so why don’t you make use of Dharma? Oh! (It is surprising and matter of grief that) no body is hearing to this (valued) advise.
It is acknowledged that Vyasji had number of great students. He arranged our complex Vedas in four parts systematically and wrote Mahabharat- the great epic,18 Puranas, Brahma Sutra, commented on Yoga Sutra and moreover worked greatly and unimaginably for benefit of us. Therefore he is called Vyas Vishal -(great) in Sanskrit. He has a very important part in strengthening the vedic culture and its values for all the future to come.
Philosophy and science both accept that without Time, Space and Relativity there does not exist the creation so called, world. Without these, we cannot imagine, perceive and conceive the existence of world. They work together simultaneously to project the whole creation. As I tried to explain in my last two articles; SPACE is ‘that which gives room for everything to exist (AvakaashDhaatru Aakash) and TIME is continues, on-going moving abstract phenomena. All events happen from one point of time to another point of time and we measure and ascertain those within principle of Relativity.
Relativity is one of the important aspects that assist in judging or evaluating the existence of the world. There are inumerable separate entities such as planets, stars, clouds, earth, trees, animals, persons. Due to their individual existence, they can only be recognized by relating them to oneself (observer) and within each entity.
Suppose we imagine ourselves without relativity, can we perceive or conceive this objective world ? No. According to Vedanta, space-time-relativity is power of Maya. (meaning:”the power by which the universe becomes manifest; the appearance or illusion of the magnificient world”). The world is experienced during both the waking and dream states within all its variations in the cause-effect relation; like master and servant, teacher and disciple, father and son. In a relative world, a same person may be recognized as child, son, brother, husband, father, uncle and grandfather. A planet would be big, small, from and to, far and near, to different observers.
This is relative (satya) or transactional truth.
But what is the Eternal or Absolute Truth? Here Swamiji explains the following ponderable Truth:
[ Things (objects) and Knowledge (Gyanam) ]
When we open our eyes we see the colorful world of multifarious forms. With deep examination we realize that, what we directly perceive are not objects, but their qualities, such as color, size, form, hardness or softness and so forth. None of these qualities are objects; they only qualify the objects. What we conceive as colorful world is the totality of qualities we perceive. What we directly perceive is not the world, but its qualities and attributes.
Where then does the world exist? It is in our knowledge? The substantiality of the world is in our knowledge; the experience also takes place in our knowledge. In short, both (1) the existence of the world and (2) our experience of it happen in our knowledge. In our search for Reality we conclude that Knowledge (gyan) is Reality.
Thus Brahman /world is to be contemplated as Reality as well as Knowledge.
(Note: The Veda Vakya “Pragyanam Brahman”– is glorified here)
*Narayana Guru brings all this out in the stanzas of the AtmopadesaSatakam.
“It is not qualified but qualities. That we know: since the said qualified remains unseen,
Do remember the earth and all else is naught, (no-things or as if nothings)
While the supporting bright form of awareness is all there is.”
*(by Swamy Muni Narayan Prasad)
It is explained that whenever we observe every visible object as gross and inactive, we simply imagine it’s causal substance (fundamental reality) as an inert entity. Here we can be mistaken by conceiving it at its face value. However, if we contemplate the actual causal substance as ‘reality as well as knowledge’ as explained above * (Things and Knowledge), we can avoid this mistake or error.
The knowledge about something familiar, is called objective knowledge (vishayagyan). A stream of such knowledge occurs in our consciousness. However, during deep sleep the consciousness remains dormant. Sometimes consciousness may create its own world and enjoys itself within it (like dream).
Where do these altering states take place? (Altering States is; (1) while we are awake/Jagrata (2) dream/Svapna state and (3) deep sleep/Sushupti). The only answer is, it is within consciousness or knowledge. It is consciousness that witnesses all these altering states while becoming subject to these alterations. This witnessing consciousness is what is intended here by the word Knowledge (gyan). (Note:- object=out there, separate from “I”; Subject = “I” who observe the objects within self).
Another explanation by Yogavashisthais:-Even though this objective world (in origin) is formless, (we) see it in the actual form, like we see and experience it in dream state. Note:-As per Yogavashistha this world that we actually experience is nothing but prolong big dream. Yet another thinker explained that:- “What we observe is not nature itself, but nature exposed to our method of questioning”
Furthermore, Heisenberg (a great nuclear scientist) said; “If the new physics has led us anywhere, it is back to ourselves, which, of course, is the only place that we could go. I find it fascinating and worth pondering that; finding something, expecting, researching, addressing and questioning directs finally back to ourselves.Whichof course, is the only place that we could go.
It’s also worth acknowledging: Shree DakshinamurtyStotram(by AdiShankaracharya)
Tasmai Sri Gurumurtayenamaidam Sri Dakshinamurtaye. ( Sloka 1)”
It explains that the universe is like a city reflected in a mirror, seen as real envision-things inside the mirror but in reality it is out side the mirror !. Again, it is like its in a dream, an inside phenomenon appearing outside but really is inside (in us).
The Supreme Brahman is True or Original, the one without second. That is *Atman and Its reflection seen through the media of senses, mind, and intellect. The identity of the Supreme Brahman as one’s Atman is understood on self-illumination. “He by whose grace that illumination comes to me –to that (Lord) Dakshinamurti, the supreme Being, who is embodied in the auspicious and benign Guru, I offer my profound salutation.”
Vishvam=projection of names and forms, (as if) outwardly during waking stage.
Tejas-Nidra=Dream stage, projection (as if out of me) but,
Nijantargatam=(all projection ) is really within ME)
Prabodhasamaye=Upon Self-illumination all those imagined out there, repose or back to the Self non-dually
It follows, that in the: Simile:- Example of a bright (chaitanyamaya) Mirror (is compared here) as Atma. Objective world in waking state, called Vishva in Sanskrit. Dream state called ‘Tejas’ from where all phenomenon projects as events happen in dream. These both states and deep sleep are only momentary. But, *eternal Atman(Self) only that one without second is reflected, projected as all these, yes, nothing but Atma.
Another way to look at this is :- The world has existence only as a reflection in the mind, at all times, it could only be experienced as an inner emotion. The world of plurality, though it exists only within one’s own mind, it is experienced as solid and substantial objects outside the experiencer who is only witnessing / Sackshy (isn’t it surprise?). The pluralistic world of objects recognized is only the play of the mind-the Maya.
We should analyze and distinquish to realise the Truth. All Relative aspects are not totally separate from Absolute and they are all within absolute. Relative is changeable, while Absolute is eternal and unchangable.
Truth is one and nothing but one -that is Absolute, our final goal.
Since Vedic era in India there existed great Rushis , thinkers and philosophers, including one controversial Muni named “Chaarvaak”, of Ramayana era. According to him, the existing visible world and persons living here are, the only fact. “Only the visible perceptible proof is acceptable, called (1) PratyaxaPramaan.Ishvar/God is mere imagination. Any outside dimension or PERLOKE is nothing but only our fancy idea. When a person dies, nothing is left, even himself/herself-becomes “Zero”. So performing rituals upon death is meaningless. In essence, our aim is to enjoy and be happy in this very life at all possible cost”.
His famous aphorism/Sutra is;“To get such happiness, you may even take loan / be in debt to drink Ghee.” Yes, such way of life/thought is still present even today.This theory may emerge as a negative ideology nd impractical in context of law and order. There seems to be lack of understanding of real truth and they may be considered atheist /Nastik. They seem to disregard other five important logical Pramanas ( proofs).
On the otherhand, there were number of high thinkers, Mahatmas, highly intellectual Rushis and philosophers those against above ideas. All such (positive) ways of thinking is assimilated in our reliable scriptures. There exist powerful and pure- logical statements or arguments. Example, “a person is not only bundle of this flesh-body that we perceive or see. This is only very small percentage of its total existence. Behind the visible body, there are 23 and more invisible elements like 5 Pranas, mind, intellect, ego, senses (indriyas), 5 subjects of interest (vishyas,) Life & energy function (chetana/ Chaitanya), causal body, Prarabdha karma of past life and present life that standby to give result and more; all these are called aJiva-personal soul. OR :- Jiva is immortal for it is Ansha/part of Parmatama. Jiva does not happens to destroy even after death of the body. These said elements (23++)are only attributes of Jiva”.
Those who deny and say that there is nothing left, “zero” after death, are like closing their eyes and sayng -there do not exist the Sun. This is undeniable truth. This implies that, a person after leaving one’s body, still exists and continues the journey,yet it may not be seen or is comprehensive.
So in essence, the question is:-upon the death of our family member should we should express our respect and pray for peace. If we believe Jiva then all necessary rituals after death should be performed with full faith and heartily. This is our duty. There may be some differences in ritual performance according to time, country, culture and circumstances, but main principle is TRUE.
(1)The chosen concept, thinking or ideas that make you weak and fearful to your mind should be abandoned and remove from your belief, even if they are popular in family, society or religion. …(Swami Vivekanand)
(2) Example,some people may be afraid of ghost-witch (Bhoot-Daakan). There is no concrete proof for it. And it may exist or not exist. Oh! Suppose it may exist, even though you rather believe that such entity/things do not exist at all, yes no existence of it at all. If you come to this courageous decision, you are saved from all unnecessary and useless thought-waves in your life. You become strong in respect of mind and intellect. You can tackle all your problems and progress in life. (Swamy Dayanand Saraswati)
(3) Hai! Arjun .. leave your inferior thoughts and weakness of your mood of heart and mind. Awake and stand up, and attain your goal. (Bhagwat Geeta)
Gita says :-” Sahajam karma kauteya sadoshmapi na tyajet
Sarvaarambhaa hi doshena dhumenaagnirivavrutaa “: (18/48)
“Arjuna, karma is natural to one’s traits/ deeds, even if they happen to be blameful, should not be given up. In fact, are clouded by some blemish, as is fire by smoke.”
So, no effort in this world can be entirely blameless; some defect is always present even as smoke always accompanies fire. This is true also dealing with any worldly subjects including scriptures and spirituality. Keeping in mind above, we should not neglect our valuable spiritual way of life.
ANALYSIS OF OUR LIFE ACTIONS
Once, I came to India, a gentle speaking lady came to my house. She nicely explained her purpose and good cause for collecting donation. She even showed me all proper photos and papers in this respect. My inner heart was convinced with the cause, for I had atleast some nature of Atmiyataa. (good feeling).
She expressed her target amount. I did not know her personally, but I give her a reasonable amount–cash.
She took my name and address, and convinced me that she will send an official receipt soon.
However, I did not get any response. !!!!!
(2) In another incident, I donated money for a specific purpose, however, it was used for their different purpose.
Then I thought “ At least, they used it any way”.
(3) In another incident, I gave cash to a well reputable organization. I know it was really for a good cause and told them to please send me an official receipt by post.
Upon inquiry, they couldn’t find track if this, and so no receipt.
(4) Many years ago, I really had been cheated on an item.
I gave it for a good purpose for use (borrow), but it was not returned.
(5) Number of times, I had experienced thefts in my business, some noticeable and some not.
There may have been more unfavourable such incidents that I experienced and I do not remember now. After some years, I will forget even those that I have mentioned above!!
One day, I was analysing these events. :- I found: what is there to be concerned about?
The Universal Mother, Maa Laxmiji, really and finally owns all these value-wealth.
She is true and whole owner in the universe. When and where such wealth should be placed and withdrawn for limited time, SHE decides. Why should I take note with negative questions for such matter to HER PLAN?.
I accomplished my duty, and will continue my duty in good faith with balanced mind as said in Gita, in respect of Karma Yoga.
Oh! I am still alright now as I was before even after my journey through such events. I do not feel dampen or reduced in my own existence. Isn’t it a great surprise !!
I remember a great spiritual saying that was expressed by Brahmalin Swamy Tilakji.
“Waves take me up there, I simply seems to be up there. Waves take me down, I seems at down. In both situations I know “I am that I am.” There is no keenness (zest) to reach up or fear to go down; for, I know that in any circumstances “I am that I am” –“I am that I am” –“I am that I am”.—- Swami Tilak”
Oh! Gita’s great advise! (Above sloka> 18/48.)
Things, financial value, memories, events those of good, bad and miserable that happened in past and will eventuate in future. All these would be forgotten, and gone, like ashes all will disappear to unknown…..How Wonderful !.
Foot note:- My above personal experience and outcome of its spiritual essence and to any Sadhaka/spiritual student should not be misunderstood that those Karmas of wrong doing against ethics and moralities are justified and acceptable. Principle of Karmas and it’s relative effects are paramount truth.
photos referenced from the website.: wallpapercave, Karma.quote.com
Can you imagine the education system in the days of Vedic era ? I mean mainly
relation between teachers and students. The following is precious and noble advise to
students. Of course, modern education has expanded teaching methods and
learning, but the harmonious relation between teacher/student is far different. Then, children left their parents at age of 12 years to go to Gurukula (school). Stayed there in natural environment as member of
big family of Gurukula, obtaining full education in many subjects including scripters and
spirituality. All this happens under great guidance of the Gurus (teachers).
Important instructions are given from Guru to the Vedic student at end of the
study at Gurukula. It is particularly for those students called prajapatya
brahmacharin who return home to their family.
(from: Taitariya Upanishad of Yajurveda), Shiksha Valli, Anuvak-11)
Having imparted the wisdom the teacher instructs the disciple:-
Speak out the truth. Practice righteousness. Do not neglect your self-study. Having brought to
the teacher the wealth that is pleasing (to him), do not cut off the line of progeny. Let there
be no neglect of Truth. Let there be no neglect of righteousness. Let there be no neglect of
protecting yourself.- including health of body and mind). Let there be no neglect
of prosperity of family. Let there be no neglect of self-study and teaching. Let there be
no neglect of duties to gods and ancestors. Treat mother, father, teacher and guest as
equal to gods.
Whatever deeds are blameless, they should be practiced, not others. Whatever good practices
there are among us, they are to be adopted by you, not others (those are questionable and
improper which are done even by superior person)
Those *brahmins(respectable) who are superior to us, should be comforted by you by
offering a seat without prejudice. You are required to accept only essence of the truth. A gift
is to be offered with full faith. It should never be offered without full faith. Offer gift
according to your (financial) capacity. Gift should be offered with modesty. Gifts should be
offered with awe. Gifts should be offered with sympathy.
Then, if there is any doubt in you regarding any deed (questionable?), any doubt regarding
conduct, you should behave on such occasions as the Brahmins do, who may happen to be
available, and who are able deliberators, who are unitively balanced, who need no direction
from others, who are not harsh, and who love righteousness .
This is the injunction. This is the instruction. This is the secret wisdom of the Vedas. This is
the behest. Thus one should meditate. Thus indeed one should meditate.
*Brahmins=not as mere race, but good quality or nature of Brahmin that may be of any race.
Note:- Do not insult or say hard and abusive words to Brahmins for this will turn back to you
with wrong results. It is better to avoid such situation.
(1) Mahaakaali(Ishwari -Goddess of Kaala-Time; or even goddess of inseparable Time-Space .) This is as per Hindu scripture.
Note:- Without Time and Space no one can imagine the existence of this
world. Knowledgeable people know that every individuals and entities of
whole creation are fundamentally consist of /made of as well sustained by
time, space and relativity; and Maa Mahakali is goddess of these. We can
compare the whole world as a big-unlimited canvas/screen that is made of
warp and woof (tana-vana####) of Time and Space; here we are seeing and
experiencing our objective/subjective Sansar-world on this canvas.
The speed of time (Kaala) is probably the fastest in the universe. The Devi is
the only great energy to boost the speed of time, so is called Maha-kali. Mahaakali is the essence of Time-continuum and its events. She swifts every
present moment into past; then, actuality and sequences of events and
objects are as if no-thing, void. They become long gone in deep darkness
or/and turn into ashes (Bhasma). At the end, She dissolves the whole
creation at the time of great -Pralaya-, finally repose all these into Herself.
All our pains and problem become over.
This is her great Kripa/ compassion to us, really.
Note:- TIME (Kaala) is great phenomena of nature.
The following are comparative view-points. It is good to study.
From :- Comparative Study
Time:- (KAALA)- Definition of Time from many view-points
(1) According to Jainism, it is a non-individual category (ajiva-dravya). It has no parts (anasti-kaaya), is beginning-less, and is immaterial. It is real and auxiliary cause of change. It is of two types; absolute time (dravya-kaal) and relative time (vyavahaara-kaala or samaya).
(2) According to Saankhya, The existence of any real time is denied. Saankhya considers time as the duration taken by an atom to traverse its own unit of space. Time has no existence separate from atoms and their movements.
(3) According to the Nyaaya and Vaishesika schools, time is an all-pervading, part-less substance, which exists by itself. It appears as many due to its association with changes, which are related to it.
(4) According to Vishistaadvaita Vedanta, time is an inert substance devoid of the three qualities (guna). It is essential and all-pervasive. It is divided into past, present and future. It is designated as simultaneous, immediate, long, the winking of an eye, etc. It is coordinate of prakriti and comprised in Brahman, and dependent thereon.
(5) According to Dvaita Vedanta, it is one of the substances (dravya). It always has a beginning and it is subject to destruction. It consists of ever flowing time units.
(6) According to the Shaiva schools, it is one of the fundamental categories (tattva).
(7) According to Advaita Vedanta, time is the relation between the real Absolute (Brahman) and the non-real appearance of name and form (maya). Thus time is phenomenal.
(8) According to Shaivism, it is the power that limits the universal condition of omnipotence; therefore, it is the cause of the limited agency of the individual soul.
Others:- The present moment is a space-time event within the eternal continuum. Since that continuum is me (I), nothing that can happen is outside myself; therefore, everything is acceptable as part of my larger identity. Just as every cell reflects the overall process of the body, each moment reflects all other moments, past, present, and future.
There are many questions and view points to keep in our mind in context of
* What is Time?
* Is Time relative or Absolute; or both ?
* Begins or ends; or beginning less or endless?
* What if some one goes faster than speed of Time? Will he find difference of effect historically in the world? Example: Suppose a man starts his journey in space faster than time and when he returns after one year as per his own time-watch, he will find an age passed away in our world. Many big cities like London & New York he finds in ruined state !
* Can we pause the speed of Time- like Lord Krishna made pause the Time during B. Gita Upadesh to Arjuna in Kuruxetra battle ground. And just after Gita-Updesh became over, original time situation begins. Only Bhagwan Vyasji witnessed this pause event, no outsider noticed. And then after war starts us usual..
* Can time go backward?
As per our daily experience, time goes forward à in a relative sense. Here cause of an event is usually first, and effect afterwards, yes within law of time and space. But referring to the other dimensions as two or more specific events in Hindu scripture, the world of Devas and spiritual world, we find there as effect comes first, then followed by cause later. Here time & events pointing backwards from our point of view !ß Or, such happens only with Daivik and Spiritual events where the time factor can be optional. It can be at either way, backwards or forwards horizontally or else within their own law. Example:
(1) At time of Lord Shiva-Parvati Vivah they prayed and did puja of (their son) Ganeshaji for all SHUBHAM (2) During Vishvarup Darshana in Gita many well known worriers already gone dead before war, in mouth of Vishva Rup Lord; but Arjun killed them with arrows afterwards! This is like a man died/killed first by gun and bullets reached later in his chest.
* We find Time in dream-state works different way, very peculiar!
In our dream state, there is possibility to bringing the whole universe into the very tiny space of our brain. Such vision is subjectively inward within one self. It is called dream (we say unreal), but no one can deny its actual experience of events at that very point of time. It starts or expands from unknown minute point and make us experience of many years and big space. Even events goes forward and backward also !!!!
Upon awaking previous time/space/events becomes gone-blank-to nothingness. But, we do not say unreal, at list there and then within the
dream state. This is every one’s experience. Please note for out come of any event in dream state there require also its own time-space system.
* And in deep sleep or in unconscious state, what happen to time & space?
* Is there happens pause of Time -Space?
* And what is PRESENT –NOW Vartamaana ?
Here Mahatmas say forget the past, “be-here & now” the gate way to the Absolute Time that is Eternal Now- called SELF –ATMA.
And rest are all-momentary. …In Yogavashistha, Guru Vashistha says this world of relativity is “large/big dream” (Dirgha Swapna) till a person left one’s own body.
* When human mind stops to go deep and unable to comprehend, scripture explains here to surrender Maha Maya, one of the names of Mahadevi. So, we surrender and leave it to Maa Mahakali the goddess of Time & space.
* Here Bhaktas worship.
* Oh! Devi, you are the measure and you measure. You are beyond measure and measurer. You are one in many forms. You are the *form of the universe. I bow to you –Sri Maataa.”
From:- Kaulavali Tantra.
In Sanskrit, word “Maa” -means (1) Mother (2) to measure, gage, and scale and “Maataa”, “Maatra” &“Maatre” also same meaning.
(Note:- Measuring take place within time and space. Mahakali is goddess and supreme controller of time and space. We human never be able to measure fully for we are within the hold of relativity. Kali is beyond time and space . Therefore the Devi is the only true measure, measurer and also beyond them.)
One name among the 100 of names for Mahakali poetically described in scripter, but true in inner sense.
(43) Naramundasrajaa- (Symbolically associated with a necklace/garland of humans’ heads).-The severed heads are symbol of her devotees’ ego. They fully surrendered to Mother Kali. A grand form of Maha Kali is described in Yogavashistha. “Mountains, rivers, planets, stars are hanging on her neck, ears, waist and anklets. Past tense and its magnificent splendour have already gone into her mouth of fire.”
Such irreversible past is fact of life. In context of such knowledge(Gyan) that emerges out of this principle, if we ponder over it seriously, our sorrow, Moha, hatred, joules, anger and other negative forces those come out of life events, will become calm. Peace emerges. Oh! Where is space left for our large and small ego?”
Here SHE imparts final freedom /Mukti from births and deaths to devotees.
There is a Katha:- The Asura/Devil name by Rakta Bija was terrifying the world.
As soon as Maataji beheaded him, he became many folds alive out of his blood drops on ground. So, to save the divine entities, She held a Khapper in her hand, collected every drops of his blood and drank it with her long red tongue. Such is Her compassion to Devas.
Yes, It is symbolically true here as well with serious Bhaktas/ Devotees. Here Maa Mahakali does Kripa to Bhaktas who surrender and wish to come out from our grip of such multiplying negative forces of Avidya. They are evil tendencies in human mind as in event of Rakta Bija. SHE saves the devotees for sure from evils here in this world, as SHE sucked evils and evil forces there in our scripture to save Devaas.
There are many examples including one with great Sanskrit poet KALIDAS. He previously was very dull in wit/intelligence and upon Sadhanaa/Tapas of Mahaakaali he became Mahaa Kavi.